Generations and Gender Survey 2020 Finland Wave 1


The Generations and Gender Survey (GGS) provides micro-level data with the aim of significantly improving the knowledge base for social science and policymaking in Europe and developed countries elsewhere. In Europe 2020, the European Union develops a strategy "to help us come out stronger from the crisis and turn the EU into a smart, sustainable and inclusive economy delivering high levels of employment, productivity and social cohesion". The economic crisis affects not only day-to-day decisions, but also fundamental choices at all stages of people's lives: marriage and childbearing, the combination of employment and caring responsibilities for the young and the old, retirement, housing, and ageing well. The GGS has been developed to provide scientists with high-quality data to contribute scientifically grounded answers to these key policy questions. Survey content focuses on intergenerational and gender relations between people, expressed in care arrangements and the organization of paid and unpaid work. Key feature of the survey are:

  • Cross-national comparability. In each country data is collected on the basis of a common international questionnaire and guidelines about the methodology. Data processing includes central harmonization of national datasets.
  • A broad age range. It includes respondents between the ages of 18 and 80.
  • A longitudinal design. It has a panel design, collecting information on the same persons at three-year intervals.
  • A large sample size. It has an average of 9,000 respondents per country at Wave 1.
  • A theory-driven and multidisciplinary questionnaire. It provides data for policy relevant research by demographers, economists, sociologists, social policy researchers, social psychologists and epidemiologists. The questionnaire is inspired by the theory of planned behavior.
  • Possibility to combine the survey data with macro data provided by the GGP Contextual Database. This combination enables analyses of individuals and families in their cultural, economic, political, social and policy contexts.
GGP ID Number

Related Materials

Finland National Questionnaire in Finnish


Related Materials

Finland National Questionnaire in Swedish



Network delineation and support
Transition to adulthood
Intergenerational exchange
Work-family balance
Gender relations
Informal and formal care
Network delineation and support
ell being and health
Economic activity
Attitudes and Values
Geographical Coverage Description

National coverage

Highest Level
Lowest Level
Finland (FIN)


Authorization Sources


Kinds of Data
Survey Data
Analysis Unit
Data Files

GGS-II Finland Wave 1

GGS-II Finland Wave 1 en
GGS-II Finland Wave 1 en
Data Collection Date
Mode of Data Collection

web-survey / CAWI

Mode of Data Collection

CAWI; PC, tablets, smart phones (android and iphone).

Actions to Minimize Losses
  1. Dealing with non-response: Reminder letters and phone calls/emails. 1.1. Screening: Sample was taken from population register, so eligibility & availability were known for all. 1.2. Refusal conversion: Web-survey/CAWI 1.3. Incentives: Five gift cards of 100 euros were drawn among the participants.

  2. Tracking of sampled units 2.1. Respondent contact information: Register data based so no collection needed. 2.2. Other contact information: No 2.3. Cards: No 2.4. Additional surveys: No 2.5. Administrative records: Address

Collection Situation
  1. Questionnaire localization 1.1. Validation : TMT software provided by NIDI/GGP-hub was used. 1.2. Pre-test : No 1.3. Pilot : No 1.4. Deviations from the baseline questionnaire : Yes. As additional questions, Finland included the so called Miller-module, i.e. questions on reasons to have/not to have children in the FER-module, as well as questions on global uncertanity, whether current life situations are better or worse than before COVID-19, and single questions on optimism, risk taking and social media use, in ATT-module. In total, 22 questions were added to baseline. Finland also modified some of the baseline questions to suit the Finnish context. These were: including the "other" gender category to DEM01 and HHD05; replacing the DEM04c with "Current region of residence" (19 options) and "Type of current place of residence" (5 options); adding DEM15_3901, 23_3901, 23_3902, 23_3903, GEN10_3901, GEN24_3901 (mother tongues of respondent, partner, partner's mother and father, own mother and father, 4 options); and re-categoring INC01 as below 20k, -50k, -100k, -200k, -400k, -600k, over 600k. 1.5. Interview lenght : There is no info on this. 1.6. Breaks-off : Do not know

  2. Interviewers 2.1. Total interviewers: N/A (web-survey / CAWI) 2.2. Total interviewers in the field: N/A 2.3. Network Organization: N/A 2.4. Working arrangement of Interviewers: N/A 2.5. Payment of interviewers: N/A

  3. Interviewer training 3.1. General Interviewer training: N/A (web-survey / CAWI) 3.2. Survey Specific training: N/A 3.3. Length of training: N/A 3.4. Control of Performance (i.e. testing): N/A 3.5. Interviewer Survey: N/A

  4. Contact protocols 4.1 Advance Letter Information: web-survey / CAWI; Respondents were sent an invitation letter. 4.2 Cold Contacts: web-survey / CAWI; Respondents were sent an invitation letter. 4.3 Scheduling/Scatter: The telephone calls were scheduled so that the respondents received at least three call attempts over different parts of the day and week. The calls were made over the time period of two months. Those respondents who answered the call and agreed to participate received and email or text message invitation which included the link and login credentials. The respondents received after the initial invitation several reminders (max. 5). 4.4 Contact History: Yes. The contacts recorded automatically. 4.5 Min number of contacts: The survey agency is experienced in similar recruitment projects and the interviewers are trained to convert reluctant respondents. Interviewers receive a briefing about the purpose and content of the survey. Interviewers always stress the importance of the survey, importance of the responses of the particular respondent and they also mention the incentive. Only experienced interviewers participated in this project. 4.6 Max number of contacts: Initial + max 5 reminders.

  5. Noteworthy characteristics of the data collection situation: web-survey/CAWI

  6. Context Please see an excellent report: TLDR; First cases in January 2020, Public gatherings and places as well as restaurants & gyms etc. were closed/limited for the Spring/Summer 2020 and many of those also later, until during Winter 2021/Spring 2022 all the restrictions were removed. ICU/deaths peaked March&November 2020, as well as after the restrictions were removed in late 2021. Overall the ICU/Deaths were much less than elsewhere in Europe. During the data collection, Finland still had the partly mandatory facial masks in public places or the like, remote work was still recommended in the beginning of data collection. Uusimaa (capital-region) had more restrictive recommendations than the rest of Finland. As GGP was an online questionnaire, the pandemic had no effects on fieldwork apart from the response rate being very low. Some questions specific to the pandemic were included. For exemple whether there are the different life situations (trust to own economic situation, mental health, relationshipd between you&closest people, satisfaction with working situation) better or worse than before pandemic. 7-scale.



Time Method


Sampling Procedure
  1. Sampling frame
  • Type of Frame: Complete register information on all of Finnish premanent residents
  • Frame Coverage: 99%
  • Frame Size: 19535 individuals
  • Level of units available: individuals
  1. Sampling Method
  • Sampling Method Type: Stratified. The sample is random but stratified by region for the Swedish speaking population to ensure regional representativeness. Swedish speaking Finns: 21 % in sample (approximately 5,3 % in population). Also oversampling population in fertile age (18–44), undersampling individuals aged 45–54. Individuals aged 45–54 constitute (year 2020) 26,5 % of the population aged 18–54, but 13,2 % of all sampled individuals.
  • Stratification: explicit
  • Sample Size: Starting sample size: 19600 Aimed total size at Wave 1: 3920

Data Processing


Archive Information

Appears Within


GGP ID Number


View Full History
Revision Date Responsibility Rationale
5 7/4/2023 11:07:34 AM
4 6/16/2023 2:17:55 PM
3 6/15/2023 1:51:51 PM
2 6/15/2023 1:45:51 PM
1 6/15/2023 1:25:43 PM

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