Generations and Gender Survey 2020 Estonia Wave 1

Alternate Title

Eesti Pere- ja Sündimusuuring 2020


The Generations and Gender Survey (GGS) provides micro-level data with the aim of significantly improving the knowledge base for social science and policymaking in Europe and developed countries elsewhere. In Europe 2020, the European Union develops a strategy "to help us come out stronger from the crisis and turn the EU into a smart, sustainable and inclusive economy delivering high levels of employment, productivity and social cohesion". The economic crisis affects not only day-to-day decisions, but also fundamental choices at all stages of people's lives: marriage and childbearing, the combination of employment and caring responsibilities for the young and the old, retirement, housing, and ageing well. The GGS has been developed to provide scientists with high-quality data to contribute scientifically grounded answers to these key policy questions. Survey content focuses on intergenerational and gender relations between people, expressed in care arrangements and the organization of paid and unpaid work. Key feature of the survey are:

Cross-national comparability. In each country data is collected on the basis of a common international questionnaire and guidelines about the methodology. Data processing includes central harmonization of national datasets. A broad age range. It includes respondents between the ages of 18 and 80. A longitudinal design. It has a panel design, collecting information on the same persons at three-year intervals. A large sample size. It has an average of 9,000 respondents per country at Wave 1. A theory-driven and multidisciplinary questionnaire. It provides data for policy relevant research by demographers, economists, sociologists, social policy researchers, social psychologists and epidemiologists. The questionnaire is inspired by the theory of planned behavior. Possibility to combine the survey data with macro data provided by the GGP Contextual Database. This combination enables analyses of individuals and families in their cultural, economic, political, social and policy contexts.

GGP ID Number

Related Materials

Website of the Generations and Gender Programme in Estonian


Related Material

Estonian Generations and Gender Survey questionnaire, in Estonian



Estonian Generations and Gender Survey questionnaire, in Russian



Transition to adulthood
Work-family balance
Gender relations
Intergenerational exchanges
Informal and formal care
Well-being and health
Economic activity
Geographical Coverage Description

The data covers the entire country.

Highest Level
Lowest Level
As there were no variables related to place of residence in the GGS core questionnaire available in 2021, the Estonian GGS did not collect information on subnational geographic units.
Estonia (EST), GGP code: 22


Authorization Sources


Kinds of Data
Survey Data
Analysis Unit
Data Files

GGS-II Estonia Wave 1

GGS-II Estonia Wave 1 en
GGS-II Estonia Wave 1 en
Collection Organization
Data Collection Date
Mode of Data Collection

Self-administered - CAWI

Mode of Data Collection

CAWI (pc, tablets, smart phones)

Actions to Minimize Losses
  1. Dealing with non-response 1.1. Screening: No 1.2. Refusal conversion: Group-specific response rates were monitored on a weekly basis. From the second month of fieldwork, respondents who belonged to groups with a lower than average response rates (e.g. men, non-Estonians) were contacted by phone by the survey organisation. Phonecalls were made by a small team of experienced interviewers. 1.3. Incentives: The set of incentives was as follows: i) four main prizes of 2000 euros; ii) 20 shopping e-gift cards of 300 euros; iii) 215 hopping e-gift cards of 50 euros; iv) a joint donation of 6000 euros was made on behalf of the respondents to child and youth welfare charities.

  2. Tracking of sampled units 2.1. Respondent contact information: Respondents were asked to provide their contact details if the contact information in the population register was not up to date. 2.2. Other contact information: No. 2.3. Cards: Respondets have received "thank you notes" at the end of the first wave and Christmas cards in the interwave period. 2.4. Additional surveys: No 2.5. Administrative records: No yet. Before the second wave, an update of the respondents' contact information will be requested from the population register.

Collection Situation
  1. Questionnaire localization 1.1. Validation : The questionnaire was translated by translators and validated by expert team. 1.2. Pre-test : No. 1.3. Pilot : Startdate: 2021-04-05. Enddate: 2022-06-25. 1.4. Deviations from the baseline questionnaire : The questionnaire included 126 country-specific items. The description of country-specific items is available from the GGP website ( 1.5. Interview lenght : Do not know 1.6. Breaks-off : Do not know

  2. Interviewers 2.1. Total interviewers: Not Applicable 2.2. Total interviewers in the field: N/A 2.3. Network Organization: N/A 2.4. Working arrangement of Interviewers: N/A 2.5. Payment of interviewers: N/A

  3. Interviewer training 3.1. General Interviewer training: Not Applicable 3.2. Survey Specific training: N/A 3.3. Length of training: N/A 3.4. Control of Performance (i.e. testing): N/A 3.5. Interviewer Survey: N/A

  4. Contact protocols 4.1 Advance Letter Information: The advance letter included the information about the aims and the scope of the survey. The letter stated that the participation in the survey is voluntary. However, the letter also emphasised the importance of each individual answer to obtain a reliable account ot family life in contemporary Estonia. The letter was personalised (it included a link to the questionnaire). 4.2 Cold Contacts: Usually the respondents received an invitation (the advance letter) via e-mail. If e-mail address was not available, respondents were contacted by phone. 4.3 Scheduling/Scatter: Scheduling was used only for phone contacts (contact attempts were spread over different days of the week and over different parts of the day). 4.4 Contact History: Contact history was stored in the IT-system of the survey organisation (Kantar Emor) 4.5 Min number of contacts: Yes, after receiving an advance letter, each respondent received five reminders. 4.6 Max number of contacts: The maximum number of scheduled contacts was six (an invitation plus five reminders)

  5. Noteworthy characteristics of the data collection situation: The cooperation of respondents was satisfactory given the length and complexity of the survey.The data collection mode (CAWI) allowed to avoid presence of others during the interview, It also made answering to sensitive questions more convenient.

  6. Context The COVID19 pandemic did not influence the survey as it employed web-based data collection method. Therefore, providing details of the dynamics of pandemic and measures to deal with it, is irrelevant. The questionnaire included eight country-specific items on COVID-19. The respondents were asked about changes (improvement, deterioration, no change) in various aspects of life (quality of life, health, depression, loneliness, partnership, relationships with other household members, and relationships with people not belonging to the household) since the beginning of pandemic. The idea behind these questions was to identify individuals who felt that their life situation was negatively affected by the pandemic.



Time Method


Sampling Procedure
  1. Sampling frame
  • Type of Frame: Population register
  • Frame Coverage: 100%
  • Frame Size: 731,611 individuals
  • Level of units available: Individuals
  1. Sampling Method
  • Sampling Method Type: Simple random sampling
  • Sampling Stage Definitions: PSUs: Residents aged 18–59 (1.01.2021) SSUs: N/A TSUs: N/A
  • Sampling Stage Sizes: PSUs: 731,611 SSUs: N/A TSUs: N/A
  • Unit Selection: Random number generator
  • Final Stage Unit Selection: Simple random sampling (one stage)
  • Within Household Unit Selection: Not applicable (sampling unit was individual)
  • Stratification: No stratification was used
  • Sample Size: Number of units drawn from the sample frame: 32,005 individuals. Expected number of respondents in the Wave 1 of data collection: 8,000 Expected number of respondents in the Wave 3 of data collection (estimated at the sampling stage): Approximately 2,500;
  • Estimated Non-Response: 72%
  • Yearly attrition: Yearly attrition due to mortality, emigration, and outdated contact information in the population register is estimated at 3%.
  • Non-response measures: None
  • Within household non-response measures: Not applicable (sampling unit was individual)

Data Processing


Archive Information

Appears Within


GGP ID Number


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Revision Date Responsibility Rationale
2 7/11/2023 2:00:56 PM
1 7/4/2023 11:07:34 AM

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