Generations and Gender Survey Bulgaria Wave 1 & Wave 2



Generations and Gender Survey Bulgaria Wave 1 & Wave 2

Alternate Title

GGS Bulgaria Wave 1 & Wave 2


The Generations and Gender Survey (GGS) provides micro-level data with the aim of significantly improving the knowledge base for social science and policymaking in Europe and developed countries elsewhere. In Europe 2020, the European Union develops a strategy "to help us come out stronger from the crisis and turn the EU into a smart, sustainable and inclusive economy delivering high levels of employment, productivity and social cohesion". The economic crisis affects not only day-to-day decisions, but also fundamental choices at all stages of people's lives: marriage and childbearing, the combination of employment and caring responsibilities for the young and the old, retirement, housing, and ageing well. The GGS has been developed to provide scientists with high-quality data to contribute scientifically grounded answers to these key policy questions. Survey content focuses on intergenerational and gender relations between people, expressed in care arrangements and the organization of paid and unpaid work. Key feature of the survey are:

  • Cross-national comparability. In each country data is collected on the basis of a common international questionnaire and guidelines about the methodology. Data processing includes central harmonization of national datasets.
  • A broad age range. It includes respondents between the ages of 18 and 80.
  • A longitudinal design. It has a panel design, collecting information on the same persons at three-year intervals.
  • A large sample size. It has an average of 9,000 respondents per country at Wave 1.
  • A theory-driven and multidisciplinary questionnaire. It provides data for policy relevant research by demographers, economists, sociologists, social policy researchers, social psychologists and epidemiologists. The questionnaire is inspired by the theory of planned behavior.
  • Possibility to combine the survey data with macro data provided by the GGP Contextual Database. This combination enables analyses of individuals and families in their cultural, economic, political, social and policy contexts.

PDF Documentation

Generations and Gender Survey Bulgaria Wave 1 & Wave 2 - Documentation


Related Materials



Related Materials



Related References

Bulgarian country presentation at the GGP International Working Group Meetings


Related References

Report of the fourth GGP International Working Group meeting, Istanbul, Turkey, 6-8 October 2005


Related References

Report of the fifth GGP International Working Group meeting, Ljubljana, Slovenia 18-20 January 2007


Related References

Report of the sixth GGP International Working Group meeting, Geneva, Switzerland 13 May 2008



Transition to adulthood
Work-family balance
Gender relations
Intergenerational exchanges
Informal and formal care
Well-being and health
Economic activity



Kinds of Data
Survey data
Analysis Unit

Data Collection

Mode of Data Collection

Method: Face-to-Face (personal interview) Technique: Paper and pencil (PAPI)

Actions to Minimize Losses

Panel maintenance activities: Special introductory letters have been sent to potential respondents informing them of the importance of the GGS in Bulgaria.

Collection Situation


  • Validation: The questionnaire was re-translated from the national language back to English.
  • Pre-test: The pilot study was conducted in June-August 2004 on 300 respondents with 150 in urban and 150 in rural areas.
  • Questionnaire localization: Most of the respondents were favourably disposed towards the GGS and were very willing to participate in the Wave 1 as well as expressed the willingness to participate in future waves. Quite some respondents showed an interest in the study results and were thus looking forward to any media releases or other publications. Certain more reluctant and unsure respondents verified the integrity of the study by checking upon its research orientation, and anonymity. Some main reasons for refusing the participation were: unwillingness to discuss personal life or to be interviewed at all, distrust in surveys, not interested in the topic, and lack of time. Some language barriers were also reported, mainly among the Turkish and Roma populations. Some contacted individuals expressed insufficient confidence in the social studies and hence refused the participation in the study. Some individuals (mostly uneducated and from the Roma community) condition their participation in the study with obtaining of financial assistance, or expected improvement of their life conditions.


  • Questionnaire localization: The first difficulty was the difficult access to respondents. Then, the main problems encountered are the under-standing of the questions by respondents belonging to non-Bulgarian ethnic groups (Roma and Turks), the volume of the questionnaire and the duration of the interview.


Time Method


Sampling Procedure

WAVE 1 SAMPLING PROCEDURE The sample included Bulgarian,Turkish and Roma populations. The 2001 Census was designated as the sampling frame. The target realized sample was estimated at n = 9, 500 responde. Two stage sampling approach was designed to sample 836 PSUs and 11 individuals per PSU in the second stage. Prior to commencing the selection procedure the sampling frame was sorted according to region, urban and rural areas, municipalities and settlements. Probability proportional to size (PPS) was used to select the PSUs. Random sampling procedure was used for the selection of the individuals from the designated PSUs. The additional sample of = 4, 100 individuals was selected to compensate for the nonresponse. The additional sampling was based on the response rates by region and settlement type. In October 2004 the sampling frame was updated. 863 primary statistical units selected for the sample were updated for any changes in dwellings, households and individuals in these units during the period between the census (March 2001) and the start of the survey (November 2004). Updating revealed impediments, such as restricted access to the buildings, no answer or locked houses. Measures were developed to overcome those difficulties by seeking additional information from neighbours, the house managers or even mayors in more rural areas.

WAVE 2 SAMPLING PROCEDURE Wave 2 covers the same population that was sampled in 2004, for the first Wave of GGS. The realized sample includes n= 9,364 individuals.


Data Processing


Archive Information

Appears Within




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Revision Date Responsibility Rationale
7 5/15/2023 4:42:54 PM
6 4/13/2023 3:05:47 PM
5 2/2/2023 12:19:04 PM
4 1/25/2023 9:55:35 AM
3 11/15/2022 4:20:21 PM
2 11/8/2022 3:58:57 PM
1 10/15/2021 1:50:46 PM

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