Generations and Gender Survey Georgia Wave 1 & Wave 2



Generations and Gender Survey Georgia Wave 1 & Wave 2

Alternate Title

GGS Georgia Wave 1 & Wave 2


Georgian Centre of Population Research


The Generations and Gender Survey (GGS) provides micro-level data with the aim of significantly improving the knowledge base for social science and policymaking in Europe and developed countries elsewhere. In Europe 2020, the European Union develops a strategy "to help us come out stronger from the crisis and turn the EU into a smart, sustainable and inclusive economy delivering high levels of employment, productivity and social cohesion". The economic crisis affects not only day-to-day decisions, but also fundamental choices at all stages of people's lives: marriage and childbearing, the combination of employment and caring responsibilities for the young and the old, retirement, housing, and ageing well. The GGS has been developed to provide scientists with high-quality data to contribute scientifically grounded answers to these key policy questions. Survey content focuses on intergenerational and gender relations between people, expressed in care arrangements and the organization of paid and unpaid work. Key feature of the survey are:

  • Cross-national comparability. In each country data is collected on the basis of a common international questionnaire and guidelines about the methodology. Data processing includes central harmonization of national datasets.
  • A broad age range. It includes respondents between the ages of 18 and 80.
  • A longitudinal design. It has a panel design, collecting information on the same persons at three-year intervals.
  • A large sample size. It has an average of 9,000 respondents per country at Wave 1.
  • A theory-driven and multidisciplinary questionnaire. It provides data for policy relevant research by demographers, economists, sociologists, social policy researchers, social psychologists and epidemiologists. The questionnaire is inspired by the theory of planned behavior.
  • Possibility to combine the survey data with macro data provided by the GGP Contextual Database. This combination enables analyses of individuals and families in their cultural, economic, political, social and policy contexts.
WAVE 1 GGS questionnaire in Georgia is fully comparable with the Core Questionnaire and also one optional sub-module - "Intention of breaking up" - was added. About 25 country-specific questions have a distinctive numeration and information. They are not stored in the harmonized GGS dataset. WAVE 2 About 22 country-specific questions have a distinctive numeration and information. They concern completeness of death registration, abortions, religious marriage, and migration. They are not stored in the harmonized GGS dataset.

PDF Documentation

Generations and Gender Survey Georgia Wave 1 & Wave 2 - Documentation


Related Materials

Website of Georgian Centre of Population Research (GCPR) - Page on Georgian GGS


Related Materials



Related Materials



Related References

Georgian country presentations at the GGP International Working Group Meetings



Transition to adulthood
Work-family balance
Gender relations
Intergenerational exchanges
Informal and formal care
Well-being and health
Economic activity
Geographical Coverage Description

WAVE 1 Whole territory of Georgia except of autonomy republic of Abkhazia and part of former South-Ossetia, territories that were not covered by population census of 2002.

WAVE 2 Same territory and population than Wave 1. However, 3 villages in Shida Kartli region with 75 respondents from Wave 1 are not covered anymore by the survey. As a result of the military conflicts in August 2008, they are not anymore under the jurisdiction of Georgian governments. Close collaboration of GCPR with Georgian governmental structure yielded to contact with 64% of them.




Kinds of Data
Survey data
Analysis Unit

Data Collection

Collection Organization
Mode of Data Collection

Method: Face-to-Face (personal interview) Technique: Paper and pencil (PAPI)

Actions to Minimize Losses


  1. Dealing with nonresponse 1.1 Screening: Yes, as a mini-census of population in selected PSU has been conducted. 1.2 Refusal conversion: Majority of the interviewers were working in the regions where they permanently live and were able to establish good contacts with people due to the knowledge of local pecularities and attitudes between people. This knowledge made easier for them to convince potential respondents for interview. 1.3 Incentives: None.

  2. Tracking of sampled units 2.1 Respondent contact information: Yes, contact details mainly fix and mobile telephone numbers of the respondent were collected for following contacts. 2.2 Other contact information: Yes, contact details of any person who we may apply later were collected. 2.3 Cards: Only a brochure with results of Wave 1 was sent. 2.4 Additional surveys: No. 2.5 Administrative records: No

WAVE 2 ACTIONS: metadata are forthcoming

Collection Situation


  1. Interviewers 1.1 Total number of interviewers: 131. 1.2 Number of interviewers in the field: Each interviewer had a fixed number of interviews to carry out. Some of them could finish the work earlier than others. 1.3 Network organization: Field coordinators - 10 regional coordinators in all administrative regions of Georgia, aside of Tbilisi, coordination of fieldwork in Tbilisi, capital city - by project team. 1.4 Working arrangement of interviewers: Fully contracted for period of fieldwork people, mostly professional interviewers, some specially trained and fully employed. 1.5 Payment of interviewers: Per interview, some additional benefits for those working in montain areas and areas with poor transport communication.

  2. Interviewer training: 2.1 General interviewing: No. 2.2 Survey specific: Interviewers in Tbilisi, capital city, were mostly the experienced interviewers, so one-week of training in GGS-specific issues has been conducted for them with home works during the training course and exams at the end. In regions, two stages-training has been implemented. At the first stage, interviewers were trained by regional supervisors, then the project team visited each region with purpose of organizing of exams for regional interviewers, and for those successfully passed this exam additional two-day training with home works and experimental interviewing. All regional supervisors were trained in advance in Tbilisi, provided with instruction of procedure of training at place. Groups of interviewers were designed with taking into account their experience. People having the experience of dealing with the economic surveys, as interviewers of household surveys of Georgian statistical office were trained by distinctive program than those worked before mainly on sociological surveys. 2.3 Length: Duration of each training session was one week, some interviewers who did not successfully pass exams were invited repeatedly to attend part of the training session on definite questionnaire chapters with the next group 2.4 Control of performance: Yes, 3 respondents in each PSU consisted 25 interviewed households have been visited for control. In case of problems found all addresses were visited for control. All filled questionnaires before the data-entry passed the procedure of logical control by the special group of trained staff. 2.5 Interviewer survey: Permanent discussions with interviewers and supervisors during fieldwork allowed us to adjust the operating procedures during the fieldwork.

  3. Contact protocols 3.1 Advance letter: Household visit during micro-census of population in selected PSU several months before survey. Interviewers were required to mark any family members unable to be interviewed due to health conditions. 3.2 Cold contacts: During micro-census of population in selected PSU several months prior to survey using face-to-face contact with any family member where respondent had chance to be chosen for survey. 3.3 Scheduling / scattering: The scheduling procedure was up to interviewers and it was different in urban and rural areas and dependent on respondent's employment schedule and his/her personal preferences. Interviewers in big cities were advised not to call to potential respondents in advance, as pilot survey has shown that probability of refusal is higher in this case, while if potential respondents meet with interviewers they are more likely to do a favour and accept interviewing, or in case of time-limits for the respondent to make an appointment for another time. 3.4 Contact history: No, as interviewers were allowed to replace the potential respondent. However, regional supervisors were responsible for monitoring of all cases of replacement and proper following the procedure of replacement. 3.5 Min number of contacts: 3 visits. 2.6 Max number of contacts: NA.

  4. Questionnaire localization 4.1 Validation: Re-translation was used. 4.2 Pre-test: A pre-test was carried out in September 2004 (150 respondents). The design effect characteristics and response rates found by the pilot study confirmed that proposed sampling design is sufficient to meet the GGP requirement. Furthermore, it was found that some questions in the Core Questionnaire needed to be modified and reformulated. 4.3 Length of interview: Average length of interview: 71.1 minutes.


  • Total number of interviewers: 165
  • Network organization: 10 regional supervisors in all administrative regions of Georgia, aside of Tbilisi, coordination of fieldwork in Tbilisi, capital city - by project team.
  • Control of performance: Three stages of control:
  1. Controllers have visited 8 randomly chosen addresses in each of 400 PSU (Nmax=25) provided by GCPR staff – 3200 addresses in total.
  2. Interviewers having at least one problem on at least one controlled address were additionally screened. In total the second stage of control have been implemented in 36 PSU.
  3. In case of significant discrepancies in age of respondents between two waves GCPR staff was making comparison of personal information on respondent and his household composition by I and II wave.


Time Method


Sampling Procedure


  1. Sampling frame 1.1 Type of frame: Name lists constructed several months prior to the fieldwork on the basis of micro-census of population residing in PSU selected from the complete list of census units by population census of 2002. Georgian statistical office has prepared the electronic version of households' address information based on initial paper documentation of census 2002. Then interviewers have visited all the households (more than 31,000) and recorded the personal information (name, age and sex) on all household members. This information was computerized in GCPR and used at the second stage of sampling for sample of appropriate individuals from the list. 1.2 Frame coverage: Total target population residing on the whole territory of Georgia aside of autonomy republic of Abkhazia and part of former South Ossetia, territories where jurisdiction of Georgian authorities is not expanding in fact and that were not covered by Georgian population census of 2002. 1.3 Frame size: 16,852 population census units. 1.4 Level of units available: Individuals.

  2. Sampling method 2.1 Sampling method type: Multistage- 2 stages' design of sampling, at the first stage: sampling of PSU, at the second stage: individuals for interview 2.2 Sampling stage definition

    • PSU: is equal to population census unit by population census of 2002; those census units with less than 40 households were merged with neighbouring census unit and considered as one primary sampling unit.
    • SSU: Potential respondent.
    • TSU: NA. 2.3 Sampling stage size
    • PSU: 400.
    • SSU: 10,000 respondents in basic list and about 4,000 in the reserve list upon request
    • TSU: NA. 2.4 Unit selection: PPS-method. 2.5 Final stage unit selection: SRS (Simple Random Sampling). 2.6 Within Household unit selection: NA. 2.7 Stratification: Explicit: stratification at the first stage of sampling (sampling of PSU) by type of settlements: city (30,000 inhabitants and more), town (less than 30,000 inhabitants), rural settlement. 2.8 Sample size:
    • Starting size sample: 10,000.
    • Aimed total size at Wave 1: 10,000.
    • Aimed total size at Wave 3: None. 2.9 Estimated Non-response
    • Non response measures: Substitutes - selected ad-hoc: reserve list of potential respondents
    • Within household non-responses measures: None - the household was marked as non-response.

WAVE 2 SAMPLING PROCEDURE To conduct as many repeated interviews as possible of 10.000 respondents at GGS Wave 1.


Data Processing


Archive Information

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6 4/13/2023 3:05:47 PM
5 2/2/2023 3:03:12 PM
4 1/27/2023 1:59:39 PM
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2 11/8/2022 3:58:57 PM
1 10/15/2021 2:18:02 PM

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